One of the primary doctrines of Christianity as stated in 1 Timothy 3:16 is the inerrancy of the Bible. However, it is not unusual to see the common argument that the Bible is not the inspired Word of God. Instead, some would argue that the Bible is a group of books selected by fallible human beings on the basis of their personal agendas. In today’s world, there is often news a revolutionary thought process or book guaranteed to shed new light on the Bible. Like the early believers the modern church finds itself dealing with the rise of cults and false teachers who manipulate the Gospel and replace the word of God with their own false teachings. Although the Christian church had the established the doctrine of the Old Testament, there was a need to find common ground in the new teachings of the Gospel. Unlike the Old Testament, there was no written New Testament. Church leaders depended on the Old Testament, the Greek version of it, the “Septuagint” or teachings passed down via oral tradition. Church fathers recognized the need to understand, in light of growing cults, the common beliefs which made up the Christian faith. Although it took several centuries of careful consideration and selections of the books to include as canon, through the inspiration of God, the books chosen became the New Testament creating a unifying teaching for the body of Christ.
To understand what lead to the creation of the New Testament, it is important to address if the Scriptures are inerrant and inspired or are if they are simply the works of men. 2 Timothy 3:16 states clearly “All Scripture is inspired by God and is profitable for teaching, for rebuking, for correcting, for training in righteousness, so that the man of God may be complete, equipped for every good work.” while in Hebrews 1:1, believers are reminded there are many ways in which the word of God is written and conveyed to believers. Although believers do not have the original autographs or letters, nor do many know how to read the original Greek and Hebrew it is understood this is not needed to believe in the Scriptures as being the divine Word of God. As laid out by 2 Timothy 3:16, all of the words are given and breathed by God and God does not lie or mislead by His words (John 17:17). Spiritual discernment is needed (1 Corinthians 2:14), but God reveals His words in several ways. For example, such as speaking directly to the author (Revelations 2:1, 8, 12), through interviews and writings (Luke 1:1-3) and via the Holy Spirit (John 14:26). Wayne Grudem writes:
And if the Bible cannot be trusted, then God himself cannot be trusted. To believe that the Bible affirms something false would be to disbelieve God himself. To disbelieve God himself is to place yourself as a higher authority with a deeper, more developed understanding on a topic or topics than God himself. 
Inerrancy and error are theological terminology. Biblology or the study of the doctrine of the Bible recognizes the Bible has a dual authorship written by men in their own languages and time and upheld by the supernatural process which is guided by the Holy Spirit so what is written isn’t by the desires or agenda of imperfect men, but guided without error or mistake by God. Towns writes in Theology for Today this is based on the presupposition that there is a God. With this reality, what is being conveyed to mankind is not riddled by mistakes. The Bible was not merely written by men and based on their personal ideologies. If this was true, then the Bible would only undermine the need and message of redemption from God. In order to believe the Bible is true and is the word of God involves the need for faith and belief in the existence of God and the understanding He never contradicts Himself.
When it came to the authenticity and trust of the Old Testament, there was little question or doubt. Jesus used the Old Testament when dealing with the Pharisees and teaching to the masses. While in his letters Paul, a Pharisee himself, refers to the Old Testament as a source of authority as seen in the book of Romans. However, as Christianity grew and become a part of society, the growth of heretical cults became a problem for the Christian faith. In the latter part of the first century, Clement of Rome and Ignatius of Antioch began the move from using oral traditions to pass on the teachings of the Gospel to documenting the teachings in written format. Justin Martyr records in the second century not only the Old Testament writings being read at meetings, but the memoirs of the apostles. It is established that Jesus is the standard for authority when it came to the accepted Gospels or words used to convey the basics of Christianity. By the end of the second century, several letters of Paul and what are known as the Synoptic Gospels record the life and resurrection of Jesus were referred to as the Scriptures.
At the same time, within the church body, there was the growth of heretical groups such as the Gnosticis which Irenaeus included the Ophites, the Valentinians and the Caporcatians. All were groups teaching a mystical form of Christianity. Individuals known as the church fathers (which included Irenaeus and Hippolytus) were concerned about the growing threat from within Christianity and the teaching of false doctrine. Marcion of Pontus, around 140 A.D. is considered a formidable concern and heretic to the Church fathers due to his belief the Old Testament was not reconcilable with the growing acceptance of the new canon, later to be known as the New Testament. With the rise of heretical groups claiming the name of Jesus, but under false pretenses, it is recognized there was an immediate need to be able to establish the true doctrine of Christianity from amidst the untruthful claims which were causing confusion among Christians.
Although Marcion is considered a heretic and did not believe the Old Testament was reconcilable with Christianity, it is important to note his work helped begin what is considered the early development of a fixed, written canon. Ironically, his writings could be said to be the catalyst for the movement to developing a new canon in addition to the Old Testament. Throughout the development of a fixed canon, the Gospels have been influenced from within the church, as well as by external forces such as heresy and persecution.
Overall, in church history, the first seven councils in the East were called by emperors. In the West, a series of councils were called by the Pope. The Council of Chalcedon in 451 broughtbmore focus on settling and clarifying viewpoints regarding the two natures of Christ. In 325 A.D., the first ecumenical council known as the Council of Nicea was convened by the emperor Constantine in response to the rise in Arianism and the belief Jesus was not perfect or of immutable substance and subjected to moral changes. Later in 381 A.D. at the Council of Constantinople, the orthodox views held in Nicean were reaffirmed and the Christian church begin to see the establishment of a fix set of books considered as authoritative canon. In 1740, a historical document called the Muratorian Canon, named for its discoverer, Ludovico Antonio Muratori, was recovered and revealed to have been written at the close of the second century. The document is considered a comprehensive list of New Testament writings that included the Gospel of John. However, it was not until the fourth or fifth centuries when a more sanctioned canonization process emerged that the final list of accepted books would be formalized. Athanasius of Alexandria is believed to have first used the term “canon” at this time period to address the accepted list as the authoritative fixed list of documents. Later in 1545 A.D., the New Testament, consisting of 27 books finally came into official use by the church at the Council of Trent. Here Scripture and tradition were formally identified and recognized by the church.
P.D. Feinberg writes, “The question of authority is central for any theology”. Christian history is filled with appearances of false teachers and with the growing new belief of Christianity, there was a lack in identifying the doctrinal stance of the church body. The formalization of New Testament canon took nearly 350 years in which the process defended the true faith against the heretical views permeating the society of the times. There is no denying the tremendous influence that the word of God has had on culture, despite both internal and external forces attempting to distort the true Gospel of Christ.
 Wayne A. Grudem, Christian Beliefs: Twenty Basics Every Christian Should Know, ed. Elliot Grudem (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005), 15.
 Elmer L Towns, Theology for Today, 2nd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2001), 27-30.
Martyr First Apology 67.3, quoted in Anthony Frost, “Tracing the Emergence of a Canon of Holy Scripture in Churches to 451 Ce,” abstract, Anglican Historical Society Journal 57 (April 2014): 26-39, Frost, Anthony. Tracing the emergence of a canon of Holy Scripture in churches [online]. Anglican Historical Society Journal, Vol. 57, Apr 2014: 26-39.
 P.D. Feinberg, ed., “Bible, Inerrancy and Infallibility of,” in Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, ed. Walter A. Elwell (Grand Rapids: Baker Publishing Group, 2001), 156-59.